Climate: Grapes are suitable for growing in the temperate climate of 38-53 degrees north-south latitude. All the famous wine-producing areas are between this latitude. If it is too cold, the grapes cannot reach maturity, and if it is too hot, the grapes will mature too quickly, which will only make a plain and tasteless wine. In addition, the annual climate will have a certain impact on the individuality of the grapes that year, so some precious wines will be adjusted in price according to the quality of the grapes each year.
Soil: The influence of soil on the quality of wine is very important. There is no need for fertile soil, but poor soil is particularly suitable. The minerals contained in the soil, drainage, pH, and color of the topsoil all deeply affect the quality and characteristics of the wine.
Sunshine: The more sunshine, the better the ripeness of the grapes, and the higher the quality of the brewed wine. It is especially important during the harvest period when the grapes are ripe. Sunlight is the only energy source for photosynthesis of grapes. It is the driving force for the energy and material circulation of grapes. 90%-95% of the yield and quality of grapes come from photosynthesis. During the grape growing season, sufficient light makes the flower buds differentiate well, and the leaves grow green. Hypertrophy. The new shoots are sturdy and the fruits are well colored, especially European grapes that are particularly sensitive to light. They can only be colored normally under direct sunlight. In the case of scattered light, bright colors can also be formed. Grapes’ demand for light is not that the stronger the light, the better. The high temperature at noon in summer is accompanied by strong light. Under the strong light, the fruit surface temperature can reach above 50℃, and sunburn of grapes often occurs.
Temperature: Temperature (heat) is the most important meteorological factor that affects the growth and results of grapes. Vitis is a warm temperate plant. Quite a lot of heat is required. Active accumulated temperature refers to the sum of daily active temperature during a certain growth period of grapes. It is widely used and can not only better reflect the relationship between the growth rate of grapes and temperature conditions, but also can be used to represent the heat resources of a certain area. The average monthly temperature required for the grape growing period (from buds to maturity) is 10. The accumulated temperature of activities above C varies from province to province due to different varieties. High temperature can cause harm to grapes, but the degree is far less than low temperature. Low temperature damage to grapes is a common problem encountered in viticulture in the world, and low temperature limits the cultivation area of grapes. Grapes are generally cultivated between 20-51°C north latitude in the northern hemisphere. The damage of low temperature is mainly the severe cold in winter. The low temperature in spring is the hazard of late frost. The tender shoots and young leaves begin to freeze at -1℃, and the inflorescences are frozen at 0℃.
Moisture: Water is also very important to grapes. In spring, the grapes should be sufficient when they germinate and dry when they are ripe, so as not to affect the sugar content of the grapes. Among the various factors of the agricultural environment, the amount of natural precipitation and the seasonal distribution of precipitation strongly affect the growth and development of grapes, and affect the yield and quality of grapes. In some areas, for certain cultivars, seasonal changes in precipitation are one of the most important climatic factors for the regionalization of grape varieties. Seasonal changes in precipitation due to different climate types in the world. And showed a significant difference. The seasonal distribution of precipitation in the Mediterranean climate is characterized by drought in summer and autumn. It is rainy in winter and spring.