The yield of tomatoes has a lot to do with the variety and planting technology. The more one per mu yields 6000-7000 kg. This information will be on the packaging of the seeds you buy. You can go to the seed store to find out. How much money you make depends on the year. The market price of tomatoes is determined by the high unit price, and the more profitable, otherwise, the less. Just like this year’s garlic, many growers are losing money, and the market is oversupply. hoping it is helpful to you.
The temperature requirements of tomatoes: tomatoes love temperature, the suitable temperature is 25℃～28℃ during the day, and 16℃～18℃ at night. Below 15℃, tomato seed germination, pollination, fertilization and tomato redness are affected: below 10℃, growth is slow, reproductive development is inhibited, stems and leaves stop growing at 5℃, and chilling damage at 2℃, freezing at 0℃ dead. The reproductive development is affected when the temperature is higher than 35℃, and the physiological disorder is caused by heat death when the temperature is higher than 40℃. Adequate light and suitable temperature difference are conducive to nutrient accumulation and ripening, promote healthy plant growth, prevent overgrowth, enhance tomato disease resistance and stress resistance, and increase yield.
Tomato’s requirements for humidity: The basic principle is that high temperature and humidity are not required in other periods except for the slow seedling period after germination, emergence and seedling planting. Except for proper water control before planting, flowering period and maturation period, adequate water supply should be guaranteed in all other periods.
The principle of tomato nutrition supply: tomato requires a large amount of fertilizer, and sufficient nutrition should be ensured at each stage, but there are certain differences in the demand for fertilizer in each growth period. The first stage focuses on nitrogen fertilizer, the later stage focuses on potassium fertilizer, and the demand for phosphate fertilizer is implemented throughout the growth period. . However, the demand for potassium fertilizer must be ensured throughout the reproductive period.
Under the conditions of ensuring the normal growth and development of tomatoes, low-temperature training of tomatoes can not only improve the heat and cold tolerance of the plant itself, but also reduce the cost of heating and insulation. Under normal circumstances, at the turning point and critical period of tomato growth, the most suitable temperature is required, such as germination, emergence, flower bud differentiation, pollination, fertilization and maturity, and after seedlings and planting, ensure the appropriate temperature to promote normal reproductive physiological processes and After injury, heal as soon as possible to restore growth; and before seedling division and planting, adequate exercise should be passed to ensure that the difficult period after injury is safely passed. In the normal growth stage, the temperature can be appropriately lower.
The key to tomato cultivation is to cultivate strong seedlings. The index of strong seedlings is 6 to 7 leaves, seedling age is 60 to 70 days, 20 to 23 cm high, and 60% to 70% show flower buds.
Prepare nutrient soil
The nutrient soil is prepared according to a certain proportion, and the porosity of the nutrient soil is about 60%, ph6-7, containing more than 100 mg/kg of available phosphorus, more than 100 mg/kg of available potassium, and more than 150 mg/kg of available nitrogen. Water retention and complete nutrition. Spread the prepared nutrient soil evenly on the seed bed (10 cm thick) or in the seedling tray.
Disinfection of tomato seeds. There are two methods, (1) Soaking seeds in warm soup, that is, soaking seeds in clear water for 1 to 2 hours, then remove the seeds and put them in hot water at 55 degrees Celsius, maintain the water temperature and soak them evenly for 15 minutes, and then continue soaking seeds for 3 to 4 hours. When soaking seeds in warm soup, usually one part of the seed and two parts of water; stir constantly and quickly to make the seeds evenly heated to prevent the seeds from being scalded; the third is to constantly heat the water to maintain a water temperature of 55 degrees Celsius. It can prevent leaf mold, canker, early blight and other diseases. (2) Soaking seeds with trisodium phosphate, that is, soaking seeds in clear water for 3 to 4 hours, removing and draining, and then soaking in 10% trisodium phosphate solution for 20 minutes, removing and washing. This method has a more obvious effect on tomato virus disease.
After freezing the potato tubers, slowly relieve the freezing, then squeeze the juice, soak the tomato seeds in the potato juice overnight. The next day, dip a thick cloth without fluff in the juice, and place the soaked seeds loosely on top. The seeds are not in contact with each other, and then covered with polyethylene film to avoid drying, but they need to be air-permeable, and then put them in a warm place (not heating). After the seeds germinate, they are inserted into the soil to raise seedlings. This method of accelerating germination is comparable to ordinary Sprouted tomatoes mature 2 to 3 weeks earlier.
Germination and seeding
The sowing amount is determined. Generally, tomato seeds contain about 300 seeds per gram. According to the planting density, the amount of seed used per 667 square meters of field is generally 20-30 grams. The seed bed per square meter can sow 10 to 15 grams. If the seed germination rate is less than 85%, the sowing amount should be appropriately increased.
Determine the sowing date. According to the planting season, climatic conditions, cultivation methods, seedling facilities and other factors comprehensively consider to determine the appropriate sowing period. For example, in spring open field cultivation, the Beijing area usually sows and raises seedlings from mid-February to early March. For open field cultivation in autumn, in places south of the Yangtze River, such as Shanghai and Nanjing, sowing from late July to early August has the best effect; while in eastern Sichuan, sowing in early July has a higher yield. The yield is also higher. In some areas with serious tomato diseases, the sowing period should be appropriately postponed for 1 to 2 months, and then by measures such as dense planting, early topping, and increasing fertilizer and water, higher yields can also be obtained.
Seeds can be sown directly after treatment, but it is best to pre-germinate sowing. When accelerating germination, usually untreated seeds need to be soaked in warm water for 6 to 8 hours to fully expand the seeds, and then placed at 25-28 degrees Celsius for sprouting for 2 to 3 days. For seeds soaked with chemicals, only need to rinse the seeds with clean water to directly germinate. In the process of accelerating germination, suitable temperature, moisture and air should be provided. For this reason, the seeds should be checked and turned frequently to keep the seeds in a loose state. It is also necessary to wash the seeds with clean water 1 to 2 times a day to renew the air and maintain humidity. It is best to use a thermostat for germination. The seeds that have been germinated will emerge quickly and neatly after sowing, which is conducive to cultivating strong seedlings.
Sowing method. Usually there are broadcast, drill and on-demand. Cover the soil immediately after sowing, and use finely sieved soil for the cover. The thickness of the covering soil is about 0.8 to 1.0 cm, and the thickness should be the same. After sowing, mix 8 grams of 50% carbendazim wettable powder per square meter of seedbed with fine soil and spread it evenly on the bed surface to prevent seedling damping-off. The surface of the nursery bed in winter and spring needs to be covered with plastic film. In summer and autumn, the bed surface of the nursery bed needs to be covered with shading net or straw, and the cover should be removed when 70% of the seedlings are on the top soil.
In general, the nursery bed has a high temperature and good heat preservation conditions. The seeds are germinated first, and the seedlings can emerge 2 to 3 days after sowing. On the contrary, it takes 5 days or longer to emerge.
Seedling management is mainly the control of temperature and light.
(1) Seedbed management from sowing to emergence. This period refers to the period from sowing to the full expansion of two cotyledons. The seedling period of open field cultivation of tomatoes in spring is arranged in the cold season, and the bed temperature must be controlled at 25 to 28 degrees Celsius in daytime and 15 to 18 degrees Celsius at night. If a cold bed or a hotbed is used to raise seedlings, the solar energy should be fully utilized during this period to increase the bed temperature, and mulch should be used to maintain a higher bed temperature. Before emergence, the film is generally not removed, and the window is opened to let the wind go. When the sprouts begin to emerge from the top soil, if the top shell is found due to too thin soil covering, they should be covered with soil once more immediately. See the table below for temperature management during the nursery period in winter and spring.
(2) Seedbed management from emergence to seedling division. This period is mainly to adjust the temperature and humidity of the seedbed, and time the seedlings and cover soil, improve the light conditions, and prevent and control seedling diseases. After the two cotyledons of the seedlings are fully expanded, the bed temperature should be appropriately lowered. The temperature can be controlled at 20-25 degrees Celsius during the day and 10-15 degrees Celsius at night to prevent excessive growth. 4 to 5 days before seedling division, in order to adapt to the lower temperature of the seedbed bed, increase the survival rate after transplantation, and promote slow seedling, the bed temperature at this time can be lowered by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius. Cold bed nursery, especially hotbed and greenhouse nursery, should gradually increase the ventilation openings during the day to extend the ventilation time, and the grass thatch or thin mat should be gradually lifted early and evening to extend the light time. Blight or damping-off that easily occurs in the seedling stage is often caused by bad weather, without proper ventilation, covering with grass thatch, film and other coverings for a long time, so that the air humidity in the seedbed will gradually increase. of. During this period, special attention should be paid to protecting cotyledons; improving light conditions; waiting for harmful time for seedlings; water and fertilizer management; and reasonable soil covering.
Six, growth period management
Grasp the growth period management, including cultivating and weeding, storing water to preserve moisture, arranging and binding vines, pruning and cutting branches, removing old leaves, ventilating and translucent light, strengthening the prevention and control of pests, and strengthening temperature management. Among them, tomato diseases mainly include virus disease, bacterial wilt, early blight, late blight, etc.; pests mainly include cotton bollworm and aphids. Tomato diseases can be prevented and hard to be cured, so prevention should be the first priority. Virus disease prevention methods include: selection of disease-resistant varieties, seed disinfection, stubble fields, prevention and control of aphids, early planting at an appropriate time, etc. Temperature management is to appropriately increase the ventilation of the shed during the day to keep the temperature in the shed at about 25°C. The temperature at night is kept between 10 and 13°C. When starting to release the air, the vent should be increased from small to large, and from small to large. After the temperature drops in the afternoon, the vent should be gradually reduced or closed.
Do a good job of fertilizer and water management. Tomatoes generally do not need to be watered during the summer and autumn rainy seasons, but when 2 to 3 ears are ripe, they should also be watered appropriately. According to the growth of tomato plants, topdressing should be done at the right time to promote fruit development and preserve flowers and fruits. Generally, it can be used as a base fertilizer to apply Golden Baby Microbial Fertilizer, while top dressing can be applied to Golden Baby Seedling Strengthening Agent and Golden Baby Sweetener to make it look more beautiful and delicious. If conditions permit, topdressing of bean cake, cotton seed cake and other cake fertilizers can be applied.
- Open field cultivation:
- Spring tomatoes: Hotline and small shed seedlings will be carried out in December, and the fields will be planted after mulching in late March, and harvested from late May to late July. Choose early-maturing and high-yielding Sijihong, Shengnv and other varieties.
- Autumn Tomatoes: Seedlings are sown in late June. Seedlings can be raised in nutrient bowls, planted in late July, harvested from late September to before frost, and Sijihong varieties can be selected.
- Protected cultivation:
- Cultivation in small sheds: In January, use the sun border or the hotline in the large shed to cover the seedlings, and plant in early and mid-March. It is best to cover with plastic film before planting. After planting, the small shed will be deducted and supplied to the market from May to July. More open areas can be marketed about 1 month earlier.
- Greenhouse cultivation: in early December, nursery seedlings in a cold bed or electric heating wire in the shed, planted in late February, covered in a small shed in a large shed, harvested from April to early August, choose early maturing, high-yield, high-quality varieties.
- Rainproof canopy cultivation: similar to greenhouse cultivation, except that the canopy of the greenhouse is not exposed during the whole period, only the apron screen is removed, so that the canopy plays a role of rainproof in the rainy season and summer, and the canopy is covered with a sunshade net to cool down It can extend the supply period of tomatoes to August or even September. Can choose to use bacterial wilt resistant varieties.
- Cultivation in greenhouses in late autumn: sowing from late June to early July, planting at the end of August, and listing from September to December. In October, the greenhouse film is covered for heat preservation, and multiple coverage is feasible, so that it can be extended to the New Year’s Day to supply fresh tomatoes.
- Solar greenhouse cultivation: In areas with sufficient sunshine (sunlight) in winter, spring tomatoes can be cultivated in a solar greenhouse. Seedlings are generally grown in October and planted in November. They will be available for supply from February until late June.
The optimum temperature for the growth of cherry tomatoes is 24-31℃, and they like to grow in strong sunlight and deep soil. The cultivation of cherry tomatoes should choose loam with rich organic matter, deep ploughing layer, good structure, and loose and air-permeable soil. During soil preparation, the border is 1.5 meters wide, the ridge height is 25 cm, and the furrow is 40 cm wide. The 1.5-meter-wide border field can be planted in 4 rows, the planting distance is 25-30 cm, and 6000-8000 plants can be planted per mu. When planting, first ditch in the border or on the half-height ridge with a depth of 15 cm. After the ditch is opened, 250 kg of decomposed manure per acre, plus phosphate fertilizer, 30 kg of superphosphate per acre can be sprayed at the same time . The virgin fruit is small in size, large in number, and growing vigorously. Pay attention to increasing the number of fruit set during cultivation, so that the fruit shape is small and uniform. Double-stem pruning is used, and the remaining side branches are cut off. In order to make the fruit well colored and high in sugar content, more phosphate fertilizer should be applied.